Exercise 10: Hover taxi and hover out of wind

OBJECTIVES:

 

In this lesson, the student will learn how to hover, and hover taxi in and out of wind. The student will also learn how to turn the helicopter using the anti-torque pedals. They will begin to understand the effect of wind, (relative or maneuver induced) on helicopter controllability, power required and/or power available.

 

LESSON CONTENT:

 

  1. Recap the effect of translational lift, how it can be anticipated at the end of the presence of rotor downwash, and how its benefit and effect can be influenced by wind.
  2. Fully brief the effect of wind on the helicopter, as well as the effect of a crosswind on tail rotor effectiveness.
  3. Demonstrate how a wind from the right reduces tail rotor efficiency as induced flow increases through the tail rotor. Furthermore, point out how more left pedal is required to maintain heading, and therefore more power is required to maintain height.
  4. Demonstrate how a wind from the left is more favorable for power considerations as it reduces the induced flow through the tail. Point out how less left (More right pedal) is required to maintain the heading, and thus less power demanded.
  5. Demonstrate Hover turns using anti- torque pedals, explain why all initial hover turns are first made to the Left
    • To check if sufficient power is available
    • To check if there is sufficient left pedal travel available
    • To move the tail into a clear area
  6. Demonstrate a left pedal turn:
    • Establish a 3-5ft steady hover into wind
    • Check tail is clear to the right before turning left
    • Hold cyclic into wind prevent drift
    • Use left pedal to initiate the turn, and right pedal to slow and stop the turn as 90° is reached.
    • Hold a steady hover, and reaffirm previous demonstration of the effects of having wind from the right
    • Check tail is clear right before turning a further 90°
    • Using left pedal to initiate the turn, and right pedal to slow and stop the turn as 90° is reached, establish as steady hover downwind
    • Point out to the student, the high pedal workload required to maintain direction downwind, as well as the higher power demand, and need for aft cyclic pressure to maintain position.
    • Check tail is clear right before turning a further 90°
    • Using left pedal to initiate the turn, and right pedal to slow and stop the turn as 90° is reached, establish as steady hover
    • Hold a steady hover, and reaffirm previous demonstration of the effects of having wind from the left
    • Check tail is clear right before turning a further 90°
    • Using left pedal to initiate the turn, and right pedal to slow and stop the turn as 90° is reached, establish as steady hover back into wind.
    • Repeat the exercise to the right if sufficient power and pedal travel is available.
    • Allow the student to practice spot turns, in 90° increments to the left, and right.
  7. Demonstrate how to Hover taxi in and out of wind:
    • Position the helicopter in or out of wind; select a reference point in travel direction.
    • From a steady 3-5ft hover, apply forward cyclic to initiate a forward movement keeping it at walking pace.
    • Emphasize using pedals to maintain direction, cyclic to maintain position control and hover taxi speed. Ensure the student does not confuse cyclic correction with pedal correction.
    • Reiterate the effects of wind on helicopter control and power requirements at various azimuths
    • Ensure good heading and height control
    • Ensure speed is maintained at a slow walking pace, maneuver need not be rushed
    • Ensure good airmanship is maintained throughout and engine temperatures and pressures are continuously monitored
    • Ensure tail clearance and awareness of tail position in relation to obstruction is continuously maintained.

 

COMPLETION STANDARDS:

 

At the completion of this exercise the student must be able to maintain a safe steady hover in and out of wind. If deviating from a steady hover, the student needs to be able to make the appropriate correction to regain stability. Hover taxi speed needs to be smooth and continuous (Discourage move stop, move stop etc.) Constant safe 3-5ft-hover height needs to be maintained at all times. Rate of pedal turn needs to be constant, and the student will have an understanding of the effect of wind on helicopter controllability, and be able to correctly anticipate the required control response. The student will further understand the effect of wind on the tail rotor and its effect on power. The student will also become more conscious of the effect of hovering and maneuvering over different surfaces and the associated risks (Tall grass, Dust, Uneven ground and the hazards of plastic bags etc.)

 

 

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