Exercise 13: Basic Autorotations

OBJECTIVES:

 

In this lesson, the student will learn how to auto-rotate the helicopter as close to the ground as possible, with maximum permissible RRPM, with little or zero forward airspeed and minimal ROD, without any power from the engine.

 

LESSON CONTENT:

 

  1. Fully brief basic autorotations, the aerodynamics involved, the 3 defined phases (entry, positioning and Flare phases) and the effect of controls on RRPM and speed in autorotation.
  2. Brief the students about the procedure and verbal warnings that will be used during the exercise for closing the throttle, RRPM control and thereafter the re-opening of the throttle.
  3. Establish a safe altitude (At least 800ft AGL for straight in Autorotation) conduct HASELL CHECKS
  4. Start with the Entry only:
    • Confirm that the student is ready, and warn about closing the throttle, roll the throttle off gently (Never chop the throttle)
    • Fully lower the collective
    • Correct for nose left yaw with Right pedal input
    • Aft cyclic pressure to convert speed into RRPM (Load the Disc) then forward to select 65Kt attitude.
  5. Once the entry is completed, re-open the throttle and reestablish straight and level flight at 800FT AGL, into wind
  6. Repeat the exercise until the student can perform the entry with minimal RRPM loss, height loss, and minimal yaw.
  7. Continue with the positioning/stabilization phase:
    • Confirm that the student is ready, and warn about closing the throttle, roll the throttle off gently (Never chop the throttle)
    • Allow the student to fly the entry, and let the helicopter settle into autorotation.
    • Demonstrate the correct method of controlling RRPM in autorotation, remind the student to “follow” the RRPM with the collective (RRPM Up, collective must come Up, RRPM down, collective must go down)
    • Demonstrate the effect of turning, increased G loading and speed variations on RRPM, and the necessity to keep the cyclic as steady as possible in the glide.
  8. Continue with the entry and positioning phase until the student can enter and stabilize the helicopter in the autorotation maintaining the RRPM in the green and speed at 65kts
  9. Monitor the students scan, ensure that it is correct and encourage the student to talk you through it
    • RRPM – in the Green
    • Airspeed/Attitude – 65KIAS
    • Balance – Correct
    • LZ – Position for flare/landing
  10. 200FT Instructor check:
    • RRPM – in the Green
    • Airspeed/Attitude – 65KIAS
    • ROD not greater than 1500FPM
    • If the following parameters are not in place initiate a go around

 

  1. The flare is the final phase to be demonstrated, Establish the helicopter straight and level into wind at a safe altitude (At least 800ft AGL) Conduct HASELL CHECKS, Always ensure that there is a suitable landing zone in reach.
    • Confirm that the student is ready, and warn about closing the throttle, roll the throttle off gently (Never chop the throttle)
    • Allow the student to fly the entry, and let the helicopter settle into autorotation.
    • Allow the student to fly the positioning phase, ensuring that RRPM, speed and balance is maintained
    • Ensure that the student is following the correct scan
    • From 200FT AGL ensure that the student is not bleeding off the speed, ensure that the students eyes remain outside from this point
    • At 40-60ft AGL start a progressive flare, ending in the correct flare attitude
    • At 15ft AGL begin to level the helicopter and do not apply any collective
    • Once the helicopter is in the level attitude, prompt the student when the throttle will be re-introduced for power recovery
    • Start cushioning from 3-5ft AGL by applying collective and keeping the helicopter level
  2. Repeat the basic into wind autorotation until the student is able to perform the exercise maintaining full control of the RRPM, speed and being able to safely execute the flare.
  3. Once the student is fully proficient at straight in autorotation, demonstrate an autorotation from downwind, turning into wind.
  4. Demonstrate and allow the student to practice different flare techniques used for high speed, MAUW and unfriendly terrain.

 

COMPLETION STANDARDS:

 

At the completion of this exercise the student must be able to positively enter autorotation, maintain RRPM and speed during the positioning phase, scan and correct for inaccuracies, positively flare at the correct flare height using correct technique, cushion for landing and execute a safe go around. The student will only be allowed to progress to the solo check once deemed proficient in the 800FT Autorotation.

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