Exercise 18a: Advanced hovering and manoeuvring IGE

 

OBJECTIVES:

 

In this lesson, the student will learn how to maneuver the helicopter sideways, forwards and backwards and to turn the helicopter about its vertical axis with a high degree of accuracy. The student will fully understand the effect of wind, (relative or maneuver induced) on helicopter controllability, power required and/or power available.

 

LESSON CONTENT:

 

  1. Fully brief the student on the power required/available and hover graphs.
  2. Fully brief LTE, how to go about reducing the onset and the recovery technique
  3. Revise the effects of wind on the tail rotor
  4. Revise the Height/Velocity diagram
  5. Revise IGE, its benefits and how it is influenced by the prevailing conditions and the environment over which the helicopter is being operated
  6. Brief the student on airmanship required when maneuvering over the ground.
    • Hover checks
    • Ensure tail clearance
    • Ensure area in direction of intended travel is clear
    • Awareness of the surface over which the exercise is being performed, and how it could affect aircraft performance
  7. Reiterate why all initial hover turns are first made to the Left
    • To check if sufficient power is available
    • To check if there is sufficient left pedal travel available
    • To move the tail into a clear area
  8. Recap lesson 10
  9. Demonstrate tracking of the helicopter forwards, backwards and sideways, keeping the nose of the aircraft directly into wind, whilst maintaining constant height and speed (Square bashing)

 

  1. Tracking forward:
    • Position into wind, maintaining a 3-5ft Hover IGE
    • Select a reference point straight ahead, in direction of intended track
    • Apply forward cyclic to maintain walking pace track speed
    • Apply collective as necessary to maintain height
    • Pedals for direction
    • Note: If an engine failure occurred during a forward track, with the correct recovery response, the helicopter can be safely run on in harmony with the direction of travel, and so should always be encouraged if space and conditions permit.

 

  1. Tracking left:
    • Position into wind, maintaining 3-5ft Hover IGE
    • Select reference points straight ahead, and to the left, encourage the student to constantly scan between the two, using their peripheral vision to maintain the track.
    • Apply left cyclic to maintain track speed at ½ walking pace
    • Hold left cyclic pressure to counter flap back to the right
    • Apply collective as necessary to maintain height
    • Point out the tendency for the nose of the helicopter to yaw to the left due to weathercock effect, and the demand for right pedal in order to keep the nose straight.
    • Note: If an engine failure occurred during a left track, the rate of tracking will increase drastically and swift corrective inputs would be necessary to ensure the helicopter can be safely run on.

 

  1. Tracking backwards:
    • Position into wind
    • Execute a 90° Left pedal turn to ensure the area behind the aircraft is clear, selecting a lateral reference point to mark the end of the backward track.
    • Turn back into wind and climb to 6-8ft to ensure the tail rotor remains clear when moving backwards.
    • Select a reference point ahead and to the side to ensure track is maintained
    • Apply aft cyclic to maintain track speed at ¼ walking pace
    • Apply collective as necessary to maintain height
    • Pedals for direction
    • When the lateral reference point is reached, stop and descend to an IGE hover 3-5ft.
    • Point out to the student the high pedal workload when tracking backwards as a result of an unfavorable airflow relative to the stabilizer fins and aircraft shape designed to receive airflow from the front.

 

  1. Tacking Right:
    • Position into wind, maintaining 3-5ft Hover IGE
    • Select reference points straight ahead, and to the Right, encourage the student to constantly scan between the two, using their peripheral vision to maintain the track.
    • Apply Right cyclic to maintain track speed at ½ walking pace
    • Hold Right cyclic pressure to counter flap back to the Left
    • Apply collective as necessary to maintain height
    • Point out the tendency for the nose of the helicopter to yaw to the right due to weathercock effect, and the demand for left pedal in order to keep the nose straight.
    • Point out how much power is required in the right track compared to the left track as a result of the higher left pedal demand
    • Note: If an engine failure occurred during a right track, the rate of tracking would decrease as the helicopter yaws left, recovery could be tricky as the helicopter tends to land with aft movement. For this reason, ½ walking pace track speed needs to be maintained.

 

  1. Demonstrate how to turn the helicopter through 360° whilst maintaining a constant height, position and rate of turn (Spot turns)
    • Position into wind, maintaining 3-5ft Hover IGE
    • Apply left pedal to initiate the turn
    • Use cyclic to maintain the position, holding pressure into wind to disallow downwind drift off position
    • Apply collective as necessary to maintain height
    • Apply pedals to control direction and rate of turn
    • Allow the student to practice left and right spot turns.

 

  1. Demonstrate the combination of sideways tracking and spot turns to maneuver the helicopter round a selected obstacle (Tree bashing):
    • Position into wind, maintaining 3-5ft Hover IGE, and a constant safe radius form the object
    • Conduct hover checks
    • Ensure area is clear in direction of travel
    • Apply cyclic in intended direction of travel, maintaining a constant radius from obstacle, and a smooth rate of turn
    • Apply collective as necessary to maintain height
    • Apply pedal as required keeping the nose aligned with the selected obstacle.

 

  1. Ensure that hover checks are performed at appropriate intervals and that temps and pressures are constantly monitored to ensure that they remain within normal operating range.

 

 

COMPLETION STANDARDS:

 

At the completion of this exercise the student must be able to safely and confidently maneuver the helicopter IGE. Control inputs shall be smooth and coordinated. The student will demonstrate good height control as well as a good feel of rate of maneuver required and be able to correctly transfer that into the appropriate cyclic or pedal input. They will also be made further aware of the effect of wind on the applicable maneuver, and how that influences power demand and helicopter controllability. They will be able to make safer decisions when required to hover taxi to reposition for landing, or after take off based on an enhanced understanding of how the helicopter will respond based on a given set of conditions. The student will also display good awareness of the tail position at all times, and an awareness of the clearance required before moving into a particular area. Temperature and pressures will too be constantly monitored at all times to ensure they remain within prescribed limits. A listening watch for other aircraft in the general flying area will be upheld whilst operating on the ground, and periodic radio calls to applicable traffic shall be the responsibility of the student.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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