Exercise 22: Advanced Autorotations

OBJECTIVES:

 

In this lesson, the student will learn how to maneuver the helicopter to reach the selected LZ from a variety of heights, distances and out of wind positions. The student will understand the importance of immediately responding to an engine failure and without delay committing to an appropriate LZ, and position the aircraft using the appropriate technique in order to safely land the aircraft.

 

LESSON CONTENT:

 

  1. Brief all Autorotation and revise basic autorotation.
    • Basic straight in autorotation
    • 180° turn from downwind
    • Autorotation in the circuit
    • Stretched/Elongated glide autorotation
    • 360° spiral autorotation
    • ‘S’ Turns for close LZ
    • Engine failure in the high hover
  2. Emphasize that all autorotations end in exactly the same manner, i.e. flare, float, forward, cushion. (Except engine failure in the hover)
  3. Demonstrate Autorotation in the circuit, Transition:
    • Below 40Kts and 30ft AGL, treat the engine failure as for hover taxi
    • Do not lower the collective
    • Keep the aircraft in balance with sufficient right pedal
    • As the aircraft sinks, raise collective to cushion the landing
    • Anticipate high run on speed
    • Emphasize the importance of keeping the nose straight with the pedals while sliding on the ground, lower the collective gradually to top the forward momentum

NOTE: Hover, hover taxi and transition below 40kts and 30ft AGL, is the only time the collective is NOT lowered in the event of an engine failure.

  1. Demonstrate Autorotation in the circuit, Initial climb out:
    • During the climb out (Below 500ft), there will be a large amount of pitch on the blades resulting in excessive drag in the event of an engine loss, emphasize the necessity to rapidly lower the collective to prevent excessive RRPM decay.
    • Maintain position into wind, hold the attitude at 65kts
    • Flare as normal at 40kts

NOTE: Emphasize the importance of not having an excessively high ROC in the climb out, as the upward momentum post engine failure will further decay the RRPM before the ROD airflow is able to take effect.

  1. Demonstrate Autorotation in the circuit, Crosswind leg:
    • During the climb out (500ft – 800ft AGL) there will be a large amount of pitch on the blades resulting in excessive drag in the event of an engine loss, emphasize the necessity to rapidly lower the collective to prevent excessive RRPM decay.
    • Hold the attitude 65kts
    • Turn 90° into wind
    • At 200ft, maintain wings level
    • Initiate a flare at 40ft AGL
  2. Demonstrate Autorotation in the circuit, Downwind leg:
    • At 800ft AGL, demonstrate a standard entry
    • Turn 180° into wind
    • Reposition for the runway
    • At 200ft AGL, ensure wings are level
    • Initiate a flare at 40ft AGL
  3. Demonstrate Autorotation in the circuit, Base leg:
    • At between 800ft AGL and 600ft AGL, During the base leg turn, the low pith angle is favorably low as you are establishing the descent configuration, point out how the RRPM decays less rapidly as it would during other circuit phases. Demonstrate standard entry.
    • Turn 90° into wind
    • Reposition for the runway or an alternate suitable LZ.
    • At 200ft AGL, ensure wings are level
    • Initiate a flare at 40ft AGL
  4. Demonstrate Autorotation in the circuit, Final Approach:
    • At 500ft AGL and below, the pitch angle is already low for the descent and RRPM decays less rapidly. Demonstrate standard entry.
    • Hold the attitude into wind.
    • Reposition for the runway or an alternate suitable LZ.
    • At 200ft AGL, ensure wings are level
    • Initiate a flare at 40ft AGL.
  5. Demonstrate an Extended glide autorotation.
    • Climb to 2000ft AGL and conduct HASELL checks
    • Position into wind, demonstrate a standard entry
    • Maintain 65kts, and RRPM at 100%
    • Note the point on the ground where the autorotation was entered
    • Note the point on the ground where the autorotation was completed
    • Climb back to 2000ft and reenter autorotation over the same ground feature
    • Pull (raise collective) RRPM down to 90%
    • Increase speed to 80Kts
    • Maintain 80kts and 90% RRPM up to 400ft AGL
    • Recover the RRPM by fully lowering the collective
    • Decrease speed to standard autorotative speed 65Kts
    • Note the point on the ground at where the autorotation ended, and point out to the student the increase in ground distance covered.
    • Allow the student to practice
  6. Demonstrate the 360°spiral autorotation.
    • When the suitable LZ is close to or below the point of autorotation, a 360° turn may be necessary in order to reach the intended spot.
    • Climb to 1200ft AGL and conduct HASELL Checks
    • Fly over the intended LZ, into wind at normal cruise power and speed
    • Enter standard autorotation overhead the LZ
    • Immediately commence a turn (Left or Right) back towards the LZ, to reposition the helicopter into wind on final approach.
    • Ensure that the LZ is kept in sight at all times, and that the radius of turn is judged relative to the increased ROD.
    • Emphasize the importance of maintaining an active scan check, ensuring that 65Kts and 100% RRPM is maintained throughout
    • Recap the effects of disc loading in the turn, and the tendency for RRPM to increase
    • Aim to rollout slightly higher on final approach (Above 200ft AGL)
    • At 40ft Initiate the flare (Flare, float, forward and cushion)
    • Allow the student to practice 360° turns from the left and right, ensuring that the flare is initiated overhead the LZ with no overshoot or undershoot.
  7. Demonstrate ‘S’ Turn autorotation
    • When the suitable LZ is positioned so that a standard autorotation will result in an overshoot, height can be lost by flying an S configuration
    • Climb to1000ft AGL and conduct HASELL Checks
    • Position into wind, closer than standard glide distance for a straight in autorotation to a suitable LZ
    • Enter standard autorotation
    • Commence an ‘S’ turn to assist with losing height as required during the descent
    • Recap the effects of disc loading in the turn, and the tendency for RRPM to increase
    • Assess the amount of turn required to lose height by the ROD
    • Emphasize the importance of maintaining an active scan, ensuring 65kts, 100% RRPM and correct positioning for the LZ.
    • At 200ft AGL, ensure wings level
    • Initiate a flare at 40ft AGL
  8. Demonstrate an engine failure in a high hover
    • Climb to 700ft AGL and conduct HASELL Checks
    • Turn into wind, and bring the helicopter into a hover at 700ft AGL with the LZ positioned just above the instrument panel.
    • Remind the student that the RRPM will decay rapidly due to the high power setting (High pitch setting) used to maintain an OGE hover.
    • Enter standard autorotation
    • Apply gentle forward cyclic to increase speed
    • Anticipate a decrease in RRPM When applying forward cyclic, ensure collective is fully lowered to maintain RRPM
    • Aim for 65KIAS and 100% RRPM
    • At 40ft initiate the flare

 

COMPLETION STANDARDS:

 

At the completion of this exercise the student will be able to confidently and correctly enter autorotation, they will be able to expediently assess and select an LZ, and be able to manipulate their path, whilst maintaining airspeed and RRPM as per the appropriate technique in order to make the selected LZ. The student will fully understand the method to which RRPM is controlled, through speed or control of the collective pitch angle. The student will also understand how in flight maneuvering will affect the RRPM and thus be able to anticipate it and control it accordingly.

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