Exercise 25: Slope landings and take offs

OBJECTIVES:

 

In this lesson, the student will learn how to approach, land and take off from sloping ground. They will learn how to correctly assess the ground of intended landing, and make the safest decision based on the displayed criteria.

 

LESSON CONTENT:

 

  1. Fully brief slope landings
  2. Brief the necessity to perform an IGE power check, and the factors contributing to limiting power when operating over a slope
    • Recirculation upslope
    • Diminishing/ineffective ground cushion on the downslope
    • Nature of the landing surface
  3. Recap dynamic rollover recovery
  4. Brief downslope approach and departure
  5. Brief upslope approach and departure
  6. Brief the factors to be considered when planning to position for landing
    • Wind direction and strength for aircraft stability and power available
    • Degree of slope
    • Tail positioned downslope
    • Low skid favored on the downslope
    • Left pedal turns
  7. Describe the decision making process as a “trade off” between most favorable and safest factors or combination of factors available to establish the direction of touch down.
  8. Demonstrate the Touch down technique:
    • Position the helicopter based on above considerations for safest touchdown
    • Establish a 3-5ft hover, and select a reference point to encourage the student to not drop their eyes and fixate on the slope
    • Reiterate the importance of making slow control inputs
    • Slowly lower the collective until the upslope skid contacts the surface
    • Apply cyclic into slope, to hold the position and prevent drifting
    • Maintain directional control with the pedals, keeping the nose aligned with the reference point
    • Continue to slowly lower the collective whilst simultaneously applying cyclic into slope until the helicopter has full skids lightly on the ground
    • With light skid contact, twitch the pedals to ensure that the skids are balanced and secured
    • Fully lower the collective; gradually restore the cyclic to the neutral position.
  9. Demonstrate the Lift Off technique:
    • From the neutral position, position the cyclic into slope and select a reference point straight ahead to encourage the student to not drop their eyes and fixate on the slope
    • Reiterate the importance of making slow control inputs
    • Slowly raise the collective until the helicopter becomes light on the skids
    • Continue to raise the collective; gradually moving the cyclic to the neutral position to prevent drifting into slope as the downslope skids begins to lift.
    • Maintain positive pedal control, keeping the nose aligned with the selected reference point
    • Continue to raise the collective until the aircraft is clear of the ground, neutralizing the cyclic to ensure vertical lift off from the slope.
    • Ensure that sufficient height is obtained to ensure adequate tail clearance before turning the helicopter for take off.
  10. Reposition the helicopter and allow the student to practice a slope touch down ensuring correct decision-making and assessment of landing area. Do not allow a landing from an unstable hover position; encourage smooth slow control inputs at all times.
  11. Allow the student to practice slope lift offs, encourage smooth slow control inputs at all times.

 

COMPLETION STANDARDS:

 

At the completion of this exercise the student will be able to safely approach, assess, touch down, lift off and move away from sloped ground or uneven surfaces. They will be able to make safe decisions based on prevailing conditions and control limiting factors. They will be able to uphold precise hovering techniques when opening close to the ground, and they will practice slow and smooth control inputs throughout the exercise. They will display good airmanship techniques, ensuring that they are operating within power, temperature and pressure limitations and show good situational awareness as a whole, as well as tail position and clearance from slope, obstruction, debris and any other safety considerations.

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