Exercise 26: Confined areas

OBJECTIVES:

 

In this lesson, the student will learn how to approach, land and take off from a LZ that is confined by terrain or obstacles.

 

LESSON CONTENT:

 

  1. Fully brief the confined landing procedure, referring back to previous exercises encompassing elements to be considered for this exercise
  2. Recap limited power exercise and how surplus power available dictates the approach and landing technique to be flown.
  3. Revisit the limit manifold pressure chart
  4. Revisit the OGE hover graph to ensure an OGE hover can be maintained in prevailing conditions
  5. Ensure weight and balance is within prescribed limits.
  6. Demonstrate the High recce procedure:
    • Select an appropriate LZ, ascertain wind direction, evaluate terrain characteristic and plan the circuit track selecting high and lower level reference point to hold selected LZ position.
    • Align into wind, towards the high level reference point at 500ft AGL favoring a right hand circuit (if conditions so allow) fly slightly to the left of the LZ to allow for better LZ inspection from the pilots position.
    • Reduce speed to 53Kts, to enable maximum exposure time to LZ and high recce “S Checks” (Sun, Size, Shape)
    • If any of the above criteria are not met, positively affirm a decision made by the student not to continue with the confined procedure, or to fly an additional high recce if there is any uncertainty.
    • If the high recce “S Checks” are satisfactory, maintain heading and continue to fly straight and level at 500ft AGL, and at 53Kts
    • Conduct the moving power check, ask the student to note the reading on the MAP gauge, and ensure that there is a 7” surplus at this speed
    • If the power is satisfactory, reset cruise speed and begin crosswind turn
    • Ensure that the student maintains level flight and cruise speed on the downwind leg
    • Ensure the student maintains correct spacing from the LZ, by selecting a reference point 150-400m abeam the LZ in direction of circuit travel to uphold an ideal rectangular circuit pattern (If terrain and surrounds permit)
    • When 45° to the LZ, initiate a descent and begin base turn for the low recce
  7. Demonstrate the Low recce procedure:
    • From the base leg turn, aim to level off at 200FT AGL for the low recce, provided the highest obstacle can be cleared by 50FT
    • Following the proceeding high recce final approach path, reduce speed to 53KIAS, maintaining straight and level flight
    • Asses suitable entry and escape route if the approach is to be aborted
    • Conduct the low recce “S” Check” (Surface, slope, surrounds, stock)
    • If any of the above criteria are not met, positively affirm a decision made by the student not to continue with the confined procedure, or to fly an additional low recce if there is any uncertainty.
    • If the low recce “S Checks” are satisfactory, immediately climb to 500ft AGL once passed the LZ and continue the circuit
    • Ensure that the student maintains level flight and cruise speed on the downwind leg
    • Determine DP1. 200m ahead of the LZ in line with the final approach path.
    • Determine DP2. Clear of obstacles ahead of the LZ
    • Extend the downwind leg to ensure sufficient room to descend and slow down for the OGE hover power check and positioning for landing.
  8. Demonstrate the final approach procedure:
    • From the extended downwind position, establish a descent to roll out on final approach at 200FT AGL
    • Use assigned reference point to judge speed and approach path angle to establish an OGE hover at DP1
    • Apply Carb Heat, noting its negative effect on power consumption (reduced available MAP by 1 ½ “)
    • Talk the student through the required speed, distance and height control until they have a good sense of what is required
    • Establish an OGE Hover at DP1, 50FT above the highest obstacle, ensuring that the student does not sink into the hover as speed is reduced. Positive height control must be maintained at all times when speed is below 30KIAS (Vortex)
    • Conduct DP1/HOGE Checks (Ensure 2-3” power surplus, Engine Ts & PS, Approach angle manageable, LZ Surface /slope)
    • Once clear of the Obstacle, reduce speed to that of a hover and conduct DP Checks (Power sufficient, Engine Ts & Ps, Approach Angle manageable, LZ conditions)
    • If any of the above criteria are not met, positively affirm a decision made by the student to not continue with the landing
    • If power and DP1 checks are satisfactory, continue forward to DP2 at hover taxi speed, maintaining a cautious descent at no more than 200ft per minute
    • Conduct DP2 Checks (Clear of obstacles, confirm previous assessment of LZ is correct, final decision point to commit to landing)
    • If any of the above criteria are not met, positively affirm a decision made by the student to not continue with the landing and to apply gentle forward cyclic to avoid bunting and use the previously assessed escape route.
    • If DP2 Checks are satisfactory, proceeded with the descent managing speed, rate of closure to LZ and keeping ROD below 200ft per minute.
    • Ensure positive disc and tail clearance from obstacles, obstruction, debris and any other safety concerns at all times.
    • Treat the landing as per slope landing technique

 

  1. Once safely on the ground, draw on the students knowledge from previous exercises as to how they intend on leaving the LZ. Discuss and assesse their chosen technique, once the safest technique is agreed upon, leave the confined and reselect a confined LZ for the student to practice.

 

COMPLETION STANDARDS:

 

At the completion of this exercise the student will be able to fly a confined landing procedure. They will be able accurately establish a circuit pattern based on prevailing conditions and the nature of the terrain, surrounds and LZ position. They will be able to accurately fly the confined procedure, correctly assessing the “S Check” and power check requirements on the respective legs. They will be able to effectively manage risks, and aircraft limitations to be able to position themselves for a safe landing. They need to display confident mature decision making skills and awareness of the aircraft and its position respective to obstacles and obstruction at all times. They need to display assertive cockpit management abilities as this exercise involves a high degree of information processing and interpretation. It is strongly encouraged that the instructor draws on the student’s knowledge gained from previous exercises to enforce confidence, and to challenge the students thinking more than supplement it with their own.

 

 

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