Exercise 7: Medium turns

 

 OBJECTIVES:

 

In this lesson, the student will learn how to turn the helicopter at a constant speed and bank angle whilst maintaining balance. All turns will be level initially to enforce correct entry technique. Once the student has grasped correct technique, climbing and descending medium turns may be introduced.

 

LESSON CONTENT:

 

  1. Brief the aerodynamic effects involved in a turn.
  2. Demonstrate how to initiate a left medium turn:
    • Apply left cyclic, visually selecting 15°-20°bank by referencing the angle at which the disc cuts the horizon.
    • Emphasize the need to apply forward cyclic pressure when turning left to compensate for flap back/dissymmetry of lift.
    • Point out the illusion of nose low position in left turn (parallax error)
  3. Demonstrate how to initiate a Right medium turn:
    • Apply right cyclic, visually selecting 15°-20°bank by referencing the angle at which the disc cuts the horizon.
    • Emphasize the need to apply aft cyclic pressure when turning right to compensate for flap forward/Dissymmetry of lift.
    • Point out the illusion of nose high position in right turn (parallax error)
  4. Introduce the visual assessment of bank into existing scan
  5. Emphasize the importance of constant bank angle and attitude in level turn
  6. Demonstrate how to level off from left medium turn:
    • 10° before assigned reference point or heading, roll wings level by applying opposite direction with the cyclic.
    • Release forward cyclic pressure to reset cruise attitude
  7. Demonstrate how to level off from right medium turn:
    • 10° before assigned reference point or heading, roll wings level by applying opposite direction with the cyclic.
    • Release aft cyclic pressure to reset cruise attitude
  8. Once the student has gained proficiency in selecting and maintaining a balanced level medium turn, introduce climbing and descending medium turns from cruise flight.
  9. Demonstrate how to initiate a left climbing medium turn:
    • Apply aft cyclic to select climb attitude whilst simultaneously applying left cyclic to select 15°-20°bank.
    • As speed decreases through 70Kts, Apply climbing power to establish best ROC speed (500FPM)
    • Ensure that the balance is maintained as power is introduced by reference to yaw strings/Ball.
    • 10 ° before assigned reference point or heading, initiate roll out and level off from a climb by first selecting cruise attitude whilst simultaneously rolling wings level, then reduce power to cruise and correct for balance.
  10. Demonstrate how to initiate a left descending medium turn:
    • First select descent power to establish ROD speed (500FPM) ensuring balance is maintained as power is decreased.
    • Apply aft cyclic to prevent nose pitching down and to maintain descent attitude (65kts) whilst simultaneously rolling on desired bank in direction of turn.
    • 10 ° before assigned reference point or heading, initiate roll out and level off from a descent by first selecting cruise power, correcting for balance and simultaneously rolling wings level and reselecting cruise attitude.
  11. Demonstrate how to initiate a right climbing medium turn:
    • Apply aft cyclic to select climb attitude whilst simultaneously applying right cyclic to select 15°-20°bank.
    • As speed decreases through 70Kts, Apply climbing power to establish best ROC speed (500FPM)
    • Ensure that the balance is maintained as power is introduced by reference to yaw strings/Ball.
    • 10 ° before assigned reference point or heading, initiate roll out and level off from a climb by first selecting cruise attitude whilst simultaneously rolling wings level, then reduce power to cruise and correct for balance.
  12. Demonstrate how to initiate a right descending medium turn:
    • First select descent power to establish ROD speed (500FPM) ensuring balance is maintained as power is decreased.
    • Apply aft cyclic to prevent nose pitching down and to maintain descent attitude (65kts) whilst simultaneously rolling on desired bank in direction of turn.
    • 10 ° before assigned reference point or heading, initiate roll out and level off from a descent by first selecting cruise power, correcting for balance and simultaneously rolling wings level and reselecting cruise attitude.
  13. Brief the student on the dangers of uncontrolled descending turns
  14. Demonstrate how to recover from a spiral dive:
    • Roll wings level
    • Apply Aft cyclic
  15. This exercise requires a significant amount of airspace. Good airmanship shall be encouraged and upheld throughout, the area needs to be confirmed clear of other aircraft or obstruction before each turn is initiated. Frequent radio calls shall also be made to other traffic in the GFA of aircrafts intentions.

 

COMPLETION STANDARDS:

 

At the completion of this exercise, the student must be able to do smooth, balanced and coordinated level, climbing and descending medium turns to the left and right. Their overall situational awareness, airmanship and confidence on radio should be further advanced. Understanding, confidence and control of the machine as well as, the effects and correct sequence of control input must be fully understood before progressing onto the succeeding exercise.

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